Tripti Thapa Gupta [ORCID] and Halim Ayan
The formation of bacterial biofilm on implanted devices or damaged tissues leads to biomaterial-associated infections often resulting in life-threatening diseases and implant failure. It is a challenging process to eradicate biofilms as they are resistant to antimicrobial treatments. Conventional techniques, such as high heat and chemicals exposure, may not be suitable for biofilm removal in nosocomial settings. These techniques create surface degradation on the treated materials and lead to environmental pollution due to the use of toxic chemicals. A novel technique known as non-thermal plasma has a great potential to decontaminate or sterilize those nosocomial biofilms. This article aims to provide readers with an extensive review of non-thermal plasma and biofilms to facilitate further investigations. A brief introduction summarizes the problem caused by biofilms in hospital settings with current techniques used for biofilm inactivation followed by the literature review strategy. The remainder of the review discusses plasma and its generation, the role played by plasma reactive species, various factors affecting the antimicrobial efficacy of non-thermal plasma and summarizes many studies published in the field.